FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Operational Art. • FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force. FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Operational Art. FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Tactics. FM The OPFOR operational doctrine outlined in FM represents a realistic . *This publication supersedes FM , 26 January
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Aerial photography is an important method of gaining general information for engineer intelligence while on the march.
Crossing is also a generic term identifying the site of a river crossing or the act of crossing. Fortification preparation combines and uses to best advantage the terrain’s protective properties, local construction materials, and engineer excavation equipment. With limited assets, most such groups cannot, or will not, invest in the weapons and technology necessary to keep pace with the best militaries in their regions.
Engineer reconnaissance patrols also reconnoiter terrain to determine the best areas for constructing defensive positions and obstacles, establishing CPs, and setting up water-supply and distribution points. A medium-size infantry-based force may have one or more standing armies or corps and the capability to integrate forces at the lower end of the operational level.
However, these Ground Forces are primarily infantry dismounted or motorizedwith relatively few mechanized infantry and tank units and perhaps some airborne infantry units. This baseline includes doctrine, tactics, organization, and equipment. However, such a force is exceedingly expensive to equip, train, and maintain. Normally, the OPFOR approaches field fortification in a way that benefits the offensive by allowing a smooth and protected movement to contact with the enemy.
Antilanding minefields prevent landings by amphibious, airborne, or heliborne assault forces. The OPFOR uses various deception measures to mislead the enemy about size and location of forces and weapons systems and about the nature of defensive engineer preparations. Engineer troops are vital in ensuring success. As the Army moves into the twenty-first century, it is no longer possible to identify one or two nations or forces as the potential adversaries against which it needs to train on a regular basis.
They can also lay obstacles in the depth of friendly units in the main defensive zone, and at subsequent defensive lines, all the way back to the army group’s final defensive line.
FM Armor- And Mechanized-Based Opposing Force Operational Art – Chptr 12 Engineer Support
In a 10-61 defense, the center-of-resistance dm of preparing positions prevails; fortification efforts often extend only to battalion defensive areas prepared for a perimeter defense. Engineer observation posts usually consist of two or three engineers who have 100-6 periscopic rangefinder and, possibly, photographic equipment.
As they modernize, they can reduce in size and still maintain a high level of military capability. They may still be small and lightly armed but could have sophisticated, state-of-the-art light weapons. In terms of equipment and size, they range from small forces fielding outmoded equipment to large, capable forces fielding state-of-the-art weapons. Sometimes trainers may find it necessary to draw some elements from both organization guides in order to constitute the appropriate OPFOR order of battle.
Its mission is denying key terrain to the enemy, particularly those avenues of approach most suitable for tanks. Large infantry-based forces can have multiple armies or corps and conduct extensive set-piece operations over broad frontages.
By their very nature, they are unpredictable. It may also use remotely 10061 minefields probably with self-destruct options and controllable minefields. The forcing of medium rivers 60 to m wide is an army task using the army’s organic and attached means. They gm the conditions of roads, barriers, bridges, and the water supply as well as help monitor radiation and contamination levels in the defensive area. FM provides the trainer with a military doctrine and operational art for the armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR.
In the defense, engineer elements observe enemy preparations for the attack and determine the character and extent of enemy engineer activity.
They typically use these heavier units as exploitation forces or mobile cm. If the march occurs in the rear of friendly forces, the commander can send the engineer reconnaissance patrol in advance to obtain the required data. They may also have high-technology communications and reconnaissance means.
List of United States Army Field Manuals
Optimally, a road-construction company, or engineer company suitably reinforced, can maintain up to 80 to km of road per day in moderate terrain. The name of that country would also be the State. The OPFOR continues fn develop methods of remote minelaying including delivery by minelaying helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, tube artillery, rockets, or missiles.
Basic engineer tasks also include the support of logistics operations in the rear area. The organization guide allows for standing divisions, but districts with separate brigades would be much more common and in keeping with the spirit of the infantry-based OPFOR concept.
When opposed by an adversary of similar capabilities, an infantry-based OPFOR can conduct conventional, force-oriented combat. Engineer personnel attached to combat reconnaissance patrols gain information on enemy engineer preparations. There may be occasions where OPFORs encountered in stability and support operations include a sophisticated military organization with heavier weapons.
Comprehensive engineer preparation in the entire depth of the tactical and operational zones of defense is an important precondition for holding occupied lines, as well as for troop maneuver.
In more typical cases, however, the U. In most cases, engineer units have to concentrate only on the most important mf.
The OPFOR vm several basic technical tasks that engineer troops perform in support of combined arms operations. If the OPFOR plans only a temporary halt or defensive action, it can mechanically surface-lay small protective minefields. At army group level, an engineer battalion may appear in place of or in addition to the engineer brigade, and a water crossing regiment may provide pontoon bridge and assault crossing assets.