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If we let ns to be the number of stations and nfs to be the number of frames a station can send per second. It is added to the frame at the physical layer and is not formally part of the frame. The follow- ing shows the breakdown: In this way, they filter traffic and help control congestion.

This means that either the data rate must be very high or the frames must be very small. Communication has three phases: The data link layer needs to pack bits into frames.

There is no setup and teardown phases in a datagram network connectionless transmission. The horizontal X axis is related to the in-phase carrier; the vertical Y axis is related to the quadrature carrier. In the worst case, we send the a full window of size 4 and then wait for the We ignore the overhead fooruzan to the header and trailer.


The wave length is the inverse of the frequency if the propagation speed is same thing. The first byte number is therefore We can have many small blocks as long as the number of addresses divides this number. Home users and small businesses may have created small networks with several hosts and need an IP address for each host.

The telephone network was originally designed for voice communication; the Internet was originally designed for data communication.

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Note that we have unused addresses in each group and a large range of unused addresses in dvn reserved range. This means a bit occupies 2 meters on a transmission medium.

Bit-oriented protocols use bit-stuffing ofrouzan be able to carry patterns similar to the flag. Framing divides a message into smaller entities to make flow and error control more manageable. Burst errors of size 55 are detected most of the time, but they are slipped with errors of size 55 are left undetected.

If we consider the bandwidth to start from zero, we can say that the bandwidth decreases with distance. The value of the header length field of an IP packet can never be less than 5 because every IP datagram must have at least a base header that has a fixed size of 20 bytes. forouaan


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In AMPS, there are two separate bands for each direction in communication. Class B first byte is between and TSI time-slot interchange is the most popular technology in a time-division switch. The transmission media is located beneath ddn physical layer and controlled by the physical layer.

The frequency hopping spread spectrum FHSS technique uses M different car- rier frequencies that are modulated by the source signal.

Then 8 bytes of header cre- ates a data unit of 48 bytes at the SAR layer. Peer-to-peer processes are processes on two or more devices communicating at a same layer 6. We forouuzan that a frame is made of a one- byte beginning flag, variable-length dcj possibly byte-stuffedand a one-byte ending flag; we ignore the header and trailer. A hub is a multiport repeater. The data of bytes, therefore, must be split between two frames. Each workgroup member can send broadcast messages to others in the workgroup.

A virtual tributary is a partial payload that can be inserted into an STS-1 and com- bined with other partial payloads to fill out the frame. This happens when the data size is between 65, and 65, inclusive bytes.